Between Contention and Engagement: US response to China’s rise in the Obama and Trump administrations

  • Bruna Bosi Moreira Universidade de Brasília

Resumo

O artigo objetiva avaliar como os Estados Unidos têm gerenciado a ascensão da China e as atuais mudanças na ordem liberal internacional. Argumenta-se que a estratégia dos Estados Unidos para a China tem se aproximado crescentemente da contenção em detrimento do engajamento. Os dois principais objetivos do artigo são, primeiramente, tratar a questão em um quadro teórico e, a seguir, fazer uma consideração empírica do problema. Para isso, o artigo compara as abordagens realista de contenção e liberal de engajamento e as contrasta com as políticas externas das administrações Obama e Trump para a China. Para esse fim, o artigo analisa as Estratégias Nacionais de Segurança de ambos os governos, utilizando o método de análise de conteúdo. Isso possibilita uma avaliação teórica e empírica da política americana em relação à ascensão de Pequim e aos desafios da ordem liberal na última década. O resultado principal da pesquisa é que a ascensão da China e as ameaças à hegemonia dos Estados Unidos têm sido preocupações prioritárias desde o governo Obama. O que mudou com Trump no poder, no entanto, foram os meios empregados para lidar com tais questões, com a mudança de uma retórica de engajamento para a reivindicação explícita pela contenção. Com base nisso, o artigo conclui que tal mudança de postura em relação a Pequim e o recuo de Washington da arena global podem em realidade aprofundar os desafios à hegemonia estadunidense em vez de solucioná-los.

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Biografia do Autor

Bruna Bosi Moreira, Universidade de Brasília

PhD Candidate in International Relations at University of Brasilia and in Political Science at University of Duisburg-Essen, at the Institute of East Asian Studies (cotutelle). M.A. in International Relations at San Tiago Dantas Graduate Program (UNESP, UNICAMP and PUC-SP) and B.A. in International Relations at Federal University of Santa Catarina.

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Publicado
2020-01-01
Seção
Artigos