De Copenhagen a Paris: a evolução do BASIC no complexo de Regime de Mudanças Climáticas

From Copenhagen to Paris: the Evolution of BASIC Countries at the Regime Complex of Climate Change

  • Mariana Balau Silveira PUC Minas
Palavras-chave: BASIC, Acordo de Paris, Mudanças climáticas

Resumo

O fracasso do Protocolo de Kyoto em desenvolver uma estrutura de governança climática eficaz e inclusiva provocou um movimento de multiplicação de agrupamentos no âmbito do Regime Internacional de Mudanças Climáticas (RIMC), como o BASIC. A mudança e gradual fragmentação do regime evidencia o seu caráter não-hierárquico e não-integrado – podendo ser denominado, portanto, um “complexo de regime”. A iminência de reforma na estrutura institucional, com a COP 21 como marco importante, porém, representa a transição de uma estratégia top-down anterior para uma abordagem bottom-up cujo foco reside na contribuição nacional dos países. O principal argumento do presente artigo, a partir de uma análise comparativa longitudinal das COPs, é de que esse movimento indicaria uma fragmentação gradual do BASIC enquanto coalizão de negociação política, ao mesmo tempo em que sugere novos rumos para o regime.

 

 

 

Abstract: The failure of the Kyoto Protocol in developing an effective and inclusive climate governance structure caused the multiplication of groups, such as the BASIC countries, under the International Climate Change Regime (UNFCCC).  Its gradual fragmentation shows the non-hierarchical character of this “regime complex”. The imminent reform of the institutional framework, with COP 21 as an important landmark, however, represents the transition from a previous top-down strategy to a bottom-up approach where the focus lies in national contributions rather than a broader accord. The main argument of this article, based on a longitudinal comparative analysis of the COPs, is that this movement would indicate a gradual fragmentation of BASIC as a political bargaining coalition, while suggesting new directions for the UNFCCC.

Key-words: BASIC, Climate Change, Paris Agreement.

 

 

Recebido em: março/2019.

Aprovado em: agosto/2019.

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Biografia do Autor

Mariana Balau Silveira, PUC Minas

Professora do Curso de Relações Internacionais da PUC Minas – Poços de Caldas.  Candidata a doutorado em Relações Internacionais pela PUC Minas. Membro do Grupo de Estudos de Potências Médias Emergentes (GPPM), do Grupo de Estudos de Instituições Internacionais e Grupo de Estudos de Política Externa Brasileira Contemporânea, vinculados ao CNPq.

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Publicado
2019-08-28
Seção
Artigos